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American Standard Version with Notes

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An * beside a note indicates it was taken from a bible student source.

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The following resources were used for research:

Genesis Chapter Four


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50



1 And the man knew Eve his wife; and she conceived, and bare Cain, and said, I have gotten a man with [the help of] Jehovah. 


3 names in the bible

From Strong's 7014 Qayin, unknown; Abrams Publications, from the noun קין (qyn), spear, from the verb קין (qyn), to fit together or forge. Various translators translate it as acquired, possession, spear, root of the name means to errect, to found, to create.

First born son of Adam and Eve, a tiller of the soil. He is also the first murderer, having killed his brother, Abel. He was excile, Doomed to be a wanderer and a fugitive in the earth.

GREAT WERE the anticipations of mother Eve in connection with her first-born son, Cain. Keenly she recollected the blessings of Eden and their loss through disobedience, and her memory clung to the implied promise contained in Jehovah's words to the effect that the seed of the woman should bruise the serpent's head—should crush the Evil One, and impliedly, in some sense of the word, thus accomplish a victory, and a release from some or all of the evils entailed through the divine sentence. It was in harmony with this that she named her first-born son Cain, which signifies, "acquired." In his birth she seemed to see a beginning of a fulfilment of the divine promise; this much of it had been acquired, for she said, "I have gotten a man from the Lord"—the Lord has given the promised man, the promised seed. But she was mistaken; the divine promise would be fulfilled in due time, but Cain was not the promised seed, nor even in the line of that promise. This was soon manifested. R2776

A type of fleshly Israel.*

2. A town of the Kenites, a branch of the Midianites (Joshua 15:57), on the east edge of the mountain above Engedi; probably the "nest in a rock" mentioned by Balaam (Numbers 24:21). It is identified with the modern Yekin, 3 miles south-east of Hebron. Easton's bible Dictionary Balaam is killed with the five kings of Midian (Numbers 31:8)

3) A people (Numbers 24:22) called Kain (Kenite)

2 And again she bare his brother Abel. And Abel was a keeper of sheep, but Cain was a tiller of the ground. 


3 names in the Bible

From Strong's 1893 Hebel or Habel, unknown; Abrams Publications from the verb הבל (habal), to act emptily or become vain.

The second son of Adam and Eve, a keeper of sheep. The name shows the brevity of human life. (Psalm 29:5, 11; 78:33); The site of his murder is near Damascas; Abel sought the mind of God. His sacrifice was type of the better sacrifice to come, Jesus.

Type of Spiritual Israel*

2) prefix in the name of several towns. It signifies a grassy place of meadow

3) From Strong's 59. Abel meadow; Abrams Publications, from the noun אבל ('abel), stream or brook, from the verb אבל ('abel), to drive a stream, a town (2 Samuel 20:14); also either a second town or the first called by another name Abel-beth-caacah

3 And in process of time it came to pass, that Cain brought of the fruit of the ground an offering unto Jehovah. 

Coupled with the first promise of deliverance from sin and death through the seed of the woman, was the typical foreshadowing of the great sacrifice of "the Lamb of God which taketh away the sin of the world," when God substituted the garments of skin, which required the sacrifice of life, for the fig-leaf garments of Adam and Eve. Whether more plainly told them or not, we know that the idea of typical sacrifices for sin was received, and offerings were made at certain intervals of time—probably yearly, as subsequently commanded under the Jewish dispensation, and also as indicated by the sacrifices of Cain and  [R1614 : page 29] Abel—Cain's offering being of the fruit of the ground, a part of his harvest, and Abel's a firstling or yearling of his flock.

The offering of Abel was, according to the divine institution, a sacrifice of life, and therefore a true type of the promised redemptive sacrifice, while Cain's offering was not. Hence the offering of Abel was acceptable to God, while that of Cain was rejected. R1614

Cain took of the fruits of his harvest, the results of his energy, as an offering to the Lord, and Abel took of his flocks as an offering. So far as the record goes, both were alike acceptable to the Lord up to this point; nor can we suppose that God would be displeased with Cain for bringing of the fruit of his labor as an offering. The fact that he had not respect to Cain's offering need not be understood to imply any prejudice on God's part against Cain, nor any intimation that he had sinned in bringing such an offering; neither did the Lord's acceptance of Abel's offering necessarily imply a prejudice in his favor, nor that he was the holier of the two. The acceptance of the one and the rejection of the other was merely designed to show the kind of sacrifice which the Lord was pleased to have offered and the kind which he was not pleased to accept. Cain should have learned the lesson quickly, and should have secured animal sacrifices and have presented his offering in this form to the Lord, and doubtless it would have been accepted as was Abel's. R2776

Cain's offering is a Type of works rather than faith.*

Cain did not seek God as to why his sacrifice was not accepted.*

4 And Abel, he also brought of the firstlings of his flock and of the fat thereof. And Jehovah had respect unto Abel and to his offering: 

Probably neither of the brothers knew at the time why the Lord accepted the animal sacrifices only, but later on no doubt they would have been instructed that this was typical, because the Lord intended ultimately to accept of a great antitypical sacrifice for sins which he himself would provide in the person of the man Christ Jesus, and that this sacrifice could best be represented and typified by the sacrifice of animals, and thus the presentation of the thought that, without the shedding of blood there could be no remission of sins. R2776

5 but unto Cain and to his offering he had not respect. And Cain was very wroth, and his countenance fell.

PD12 Cain and Abel were inspired by the promise respecting the Seed of the woman, and the hope for recovery by Divine favor. They approached the Lord with offerings to receive a blessing. Abel's sacrifice of animal life God accepted, because it typified the necessity for Jesus' death as the basis for forgiveness of sin. God's rejection of Cain's offering teaches that without shedding of blood there can be no remission of sins. Cain should have procured an animal for acceptable sacrifice, in obedience to the Divine will. Instead, he allowed anger, malice, hatred, and strife to burn in his heart, and became a murderer.

6 And Jehovah said unto Cain, Why art thou wroth? and why is thy countenance fallen?  R3927 God did not leave him to himself, but considering the fact of his inexperience and that there were none others to give him proper counsel, the Lord admonished him with the query, "Why art thou wroth? and why is thy countenance fallen? If thou doest well shalt thou not be accepted? and if thou doest not well sin lieth at the door." This suggestion should have been sufficient. Cain should at once have appealed to the Lord, and having learned God's will, should have prepared himself to offer such a sacrifice to theLord as would be pleasing to him. The inference that he was not now doing well, not now pleasing the Lord in his wrath and sullen attitude, was a reprimand; and the suggestion that sin was lying at the door, or (revised version) "crouching at his door," should have suggested to him the danger of a misstep. Nothing is intimated of a wrong condition prior to this sacrifice, and the sacrifice itself was not wrong—it was merely that Cain was ignorant. The wrong began when he became angry and sullen instead of applying himself to learn the lesson of the Lord's providences. Sin was now crouching at his door like a wild beast, ready to spring upon him and devour him. And, alas for him! he failed to heed the Lord's warning and allowed the crouching enemy, sin, to enter into his heart and to make of him a murderer. It was the spirit of Satan that entered into him, taking the place of the spirit or disposition of the Lord, which was his originally as one closely in the likeness of God, not greatly marred as yet by the fall.

7 If thou doest well, shall it not be lifted up? and if thou doest not well, sin coucheth at the door: and unto thee shall be its desire, but do thou rule over it.

Sin athe his door was the spirit of Satan, the murderer. It was Satan's first attempt to destroy the promised seed.*

8 And Cain told Abel his brother. And it came to pass, when they were in the field, that Cain rose up against Abel his brother, and slew him. VERSE 8 shows that Cain disregarded the counsel received and allowed his anger to burn unchecked. He failed to resist the enemy Sin, here figuratively represented as a devouring beast, and it gained control of him, and drove him, first to unkind words, and finally to murder. R1614
9 And Jehovah said unto Cain, Where is Abel thy brother? And he said, I know not: am I my brother's keeper? 

R3927 The Lord did not hinder the murder, and even dealt most generously with the murderer, to whose attention the matter is called by the inquiry, "Where is Abel, thy brother?" As the question implied ignorance on the Lord's part, Cain may have wondered to what extent the Almighty was omniscient, all-seeing, and his answer was in line with this. "I know not: am I my brother's keeper?" 

One sin leads to another unless promptly acknowledged. Here the sin of murder was followed by those of lying and insolence—"I know not. Am I my brother's keeper?"R1614

10 And he said, What hast thou done? the voice of thy brother's blood crieth unto me from the ground. R3927 Putting the matter in figurative language, the Lord declared to Cain that Abel's blood cried from the ground for vengeance. It was another way of telling Cain that the Lord was omniscient, knew everything that transpired, knew that his brother had died at his hand. In this figurative sense all sin cries for the punishment of the wrong-doer—it is the voice of justice.
11 And now cursed art thou from the ground, which hath opened its mouth to receive thy brother's blood from thy hand; The blood of Abel cried for vengeance upon the murderer. That is, Justice insists that he who takes the life of another thereby forfeits his own right to live. R1614
12 when thou tillest the ground, it shall not henceforth yield unto thee its strength; a fugitive and a wanderer shalt thou be in the earth.   

13 And Cain said unto Jehovah, My punishment is greater than I can bear. 

VERSE 13. When Cain began to realize the deep remorse of a guilty conscience, in his agony of mind he cried out, "My punishment is greater than I can bear;" and in connection with the unbearable load he mentions regretfully the hiding from him of Jehovah's face, showing thus an appreciation of God's favor to which he would fain return. This evidence of penitence was quickly responded to by the Lord, who graciously set a mark upon Cain, that no one finding him should slay him, declaring that any such transgressor should receive sevenfold punishment. Thus the Lord guards the penitent. A bruised reed he will not break, and smoking flax he will not quench. (Isa. 42:3.) If there be even a slight disposition to penitence, he fosters and cherishes it. This merciful course with Cain foreshadowed God's similar course with the whole guilty world: when his chastisements shall have brought them to repentance, then his arm will be extended for their recovery.

Heb. 11:4  shows that it was not by custom nor by accident that Abel chose his sacrifice, but by faith.Evidently he had been seeking the mind of the Lord, and had found it; and thus was enabled to offer acceptably. So with God's children now: it is to those who exercise faith, and who seek and knock, that the mind of the Lord is revealed, and they can see that nothing short of the great sacrifice, our Redeemer's life, could be acceptable before God.

The Apostle in speaking of Christ institutes a comparison (Heb. 12:24) which seems to imply that Abel was in some degree a type of Christ;—in that he offered an acceptable sacrifice, and was slain therefor. But while Abel's death called for vengeance, Christ's life was sacrificed for us and calls instead for mercy, not only upon those who slew him (Luke 23:34), but also upon the whole world. Not only was he slain by men, but he was slain for men; and by his stripes all may be healed who will penitently come unto the Father by him. R1614

14 Behold, thou hast driven me out this day from the face of the ground; and from thy face shall I be hid; and I shall be a fugitive and a wanderer in the earth; and it will come to pass, that whosoever findeth me will slay me. 


15 And Jehovah said unto him, Therefore whosoever slayeth Cain, vengeance shall be taken on him sevenfold. And Jehovah appointed a sign for Cain, lest any finding him should smite him.   
16 And Cain went out from the presence of Jehovah, and dwelt in the land of Nod, on the east of Eden


From Strong's 5110 Nud; To move to and fro, flutter, wander, show grief; a name given to the country to which Cain fled. It lay on the east of Eden.

Cain Journeyed from the West (God's favor) to the East (Disobediance); A journey from East to West Shows obediance.Example: Lot journeyed East. (Gen. 13:11)*

17 And Cain knew his wife; and she conceived, and bare Enoch: and he builded a city, and called the name of the city, after the name of his son, Enoch. 


3 names in the Bible

From Strong's 2441 Chek; palate, roof of mouth, gums; From Abrams Publications, from hanak; to inaugurate or train

1) A city built by Cain;

2)Cain's eldest son;

3) The son of Jared and father of Methuselah. (Genesis 5:21)  After the birth of Methuselah, Enoch "walked with God three hundred years" (Genesis 5:22-24) He was the 7th from Adam (Divine completeness and rest). He lived three hundred and sixty-five years and then he was taken. He knew Adam.

Walked with God, only used in reference to Enoch and Noah.

Picture of the Church*

R3377 With Enoch the case was different, as we are expressly told that he did not die. In his case, therefore, it is evident that the execution of the sentence was deferred, but there is no evidence that it was annulled. He, therefore, remained under that sentence of death until he was ransomed by our Lord's death. As a member of the fallen race, he was an imperfect man, and although redeemed, and although a restitution to human perfection is provided for him in the divine plan, we are not certain that he is yet a perfect  man. For the Apostle seems to teach that none of those whose faithfulness was attested before the Gospel call was made will be made perfect until after Christ and his bride are made perfect. He says (Heb. 11:39,40), after enumerating many of the ancient worthies, Enoch included, verse 5, "These all, having obtained witness through faith, received not the promise [everlasting life, etc.], God having provided some better thing [priority of time as well as of honor and position] for us [the Gospel Church], that they [the ancient worthies] without us [apart from us] should not be MADE PERFECT." And since the Church, the body of Christ, has not yet been perfected in glory, it is but a reasonable inference that wherever Enoch is and however happy and comfortable he may be, he is not yet made a perfect man, and will not be until all the members of the body of Christ have first been made perfect in the divine nature. As to where God took Enoch, we may not know, since God has not revealed that.

18 And unto Enoch was born Irad: and Irad begat Mehujael: and Mehujael begat; and Methushael begat Lamech.


From Strong's 5897. Irad, unknown; Abrams Publications, from the noun ir city and the verb 'ud to bear witness and the verb 'rd to flee (only one in the bible); Various translators use wild ass, fleet, runner.

Son of Enoch, Grandson of Cain



From Strong's 4232 machah (to strike) and el (god or Lord) Smitten of God (only one in the bible) (also called Mehijael)

Son of Irad, Father of Methushael



From Strong's 4967 math (male, man) and el (god or Lord) Man of God (only one in the bible)

Son of Mehujael, Father of Lamech



2 names in the Bible

Strongs Unknown; Abrams Publications, From (1) the particle ל (le), to or towards, and (2) the verb מוך (muk), be low

Son of Methushael, Father of Jabal, Jubal and Tubal-cain and daughter Naamah

First polygamist on record, he had two wives, Adah and Zillah

2) The son of Methuselah, and father of Noah; he lived seven hundred and seventy-seven years, and died only five years before the flood, Genesis 5:25-31 Father of Noah

Ancestor of Jesus





19 And Lamech took unto him two wives: the name of the one was Adah, and the name of the other Zillah. 


2 names in the Bible

Strong's 5711, from adah to ornament or deck yourself (2 people in the bible)

One of the two wives of Lamech the descendant of Cain, Jabal the "father" of tent-dwelling people, and Jubal the "father" of all such as handle the harp and pipe."

(2) The Hittite wife of Esau, daughter of Elon, and mother of Eliphaz. Genesis 36:2, 4, 10, 12, 16) Esau's other wives are Oholibamah, a Hivite, and Basemath the daughter of Ishmael. Basemath is said to be the daughter of Elon in Genesis in Genesis 26:34Genesis 28:9. The daughter of Ishmael is called Mahalath. In place of Oholibamah the Hivite we find Judith the daughter of Beeri the Hittite.



From Strong's tsalal , to be or grow dark; one of the wives of Lamech, of the line of Cain, and mother of Tubal-cain 

20 And Adah bare Jabal: he was the father of such as dwell in tents and [have] cattle. 


From Strong's 2989, from yabal to conduct, bear along, From the noun יבל (yabal), conduit, from the verb יבל (yabal), to flow along a course.

 The son of Lamech and Adah, the first to adopt the nomadic mode of life, still practiced in Arabia and Tartary, and to have invented portable tents.

21 And his brother's name was Jubal: he was the father of all such as handle the harp and pipe. 


From Strong's 3106, from yabal to conduct, bear along; Abrams Publications, From the verb יבל (yabal), to carry or bring along.

Lamech's second son by Adah, inventor of "the harp" ("lyre") and "the organ" (Hebrews `ugab, properly "mouth-organ" or Pan's pipe).

22 And Zillah, she also bare Tubal-cain, the forger of every cutting instrument of brass and iron: and the sister of Tubal-cain was Naamah. 


From Strong's 8423; from tubal (unknown) and Qayin Spear; Abrams Publications, From (1) the noun תבל (tebel), the whole world-economy, and (2) the noun גין (qyn), spear, the symbol of government, from the verb גין (qyn), to fabricate.

The son of Lamech and Zillah, the inventor of every cutting instrument of copper and iron.



(3 names in the bible)

Strong's 5279, unknown; Abrams Publications, From the verb נעם  (naem), to be pleasant.

daughter of Lamech and Zillah

2. Wife of Solomon, Mother of King Rehoboam (2 Chronicles 12:13)

3. A city in Judah, five miles south East of Makkedah (Joshua 15:41); Perhaps the home of Job's friend, Zophar, from the verb to be pleasant

23 And Lamech said unto his wives: Adah and Zillah, hear my voice; Ye wives of Lamech, hearken unto my speech: For I have slain a man for wounding me, And a young man for bruising me:   
24 If Cain shall be avenged sevenfold, Truly Lamech seventy and sevenfold. Jesus said to forgive 70 x 7 (Matthew 18:22)
25 And Adam knew his wife again; and she bare a son, and called his name Seth. For, [said she], God hath appointed me another seed instead of Abel; for Cain slew him. 


From Strong's 8352, Sheth, from shith to put, to set; Abrams Publications From the verb שית (shyt), to set or place firm. Appointed.

Son of Adam and Eve, born after Abel's death, ancestor of the line of godly patriarchs


26 And to Seth, to him also there was born a son; and he called his name Enosh. Then began men to call upon the name of Jehovah.


From Strong's 583, Enosh; Abrams Publications, From the noun אנוש ('enosh), man, from the verb אנש ('anash), to be weak and social.

Son of Seth, He lived nine hundred and five years. Adam, Seth, and Enoch died before him; and Noah was contemporary with him eighty-four years.