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American Standard Version with Notes

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An * beside a note indicates it was taken from a bible student source.

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Genesis Chapter Ten


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50



1. Now these are the generations of the sons of Noah, [namely], of Shem, Ham, and Japheth: and unto them were sons born after the flood.



2. The sons of Japheth: Gomer, and Magog, and Madai, and Javan, and Tubal, and Meshech, and Tiras.


2 names in the Bible

From Strong's 1586, Gomer, from 1584, gamar to end, to come to an end, to complete.

The eldest son of Japheth, and father of Ashkenaz, Riphath, and Togarmah and ancestor of the Celtae and the Cimmerii. The Cimmerii settled in the north of the Black Sea, from which comes the name Crimea. They were driven out by the Scythians, and overran western Asia Minor, whence they were afterwards expelled. They reappear in the times of the Romans as the Cimbri of the north and west of Europe. They crossed to the British Isles, where their descendants are still found in the Gaels and Cymry. The Celtic race is descended from Gomer.

In Ezekiel 38:6 Gomer is said to join Gog in his attack on God's people. "Gomer . . . Togarmah.—Again the address turns to the extreme north. Gomer, like Magog, a people descended from Japheth (Genesis 10:21Chronicles 1:5), is identified with the Cimmerians; and for the house of Togarmah, the Armenians." https://biblehub.com/commentaries/ellicott/ezekiel/38.htm

2. Wife of Hosea. God commanded Hosea to marry Gomer, (Hosea 1:3Hosea 3:1-4). She became an unfaithful wife and became the slave of her paramour (Hosea 3:1). God commands Hosea to buy her back. This was typical of Israel's unfaithfulness, of Israel's exile, and of God bringing her back after the punishment of the exile.



2 names in the Bible

From Strong's 4031, Magog, from 1463, Gog unknown (perhaps land of Gog); Abraim Publications from the noun גג (gag), rooftop.

Second son of Japheth.

2. Ezekiel uses the word as equivalent to "land of Gog" (Ezekiel 38:2Ezekiel 39:6). Josephus identifies the Magogites with the Scythians. A nation descended from Japheth. They are described as skilled horsemen, and expert in the use of the bow. Some suggest that Magog is Lydia.



From Strong's 4074, Maday, unknown; Abraim Publications,

From (1) the verb מדד (madad), to measure, and possibly (2) the first person possessive pronoun, or יה (yah), the name of the Lord or from (1) the verb מדד (madad), to measure, and possibly (2) the adjective די (day), sufficient.


3rd son of Japheth, the name by which the Medes are known on the Assyrian monuments.



2 names in the Bible

From Strong's 3120, Yavan, from 3123 Yonah, Dove. Abraim Publications, from the noun יון (yawen), mire.

4th son of Japheth, ancestor of the Greeks.

2. A town in the souther part of Arabia (Yemen), where the Phoenicians traded. (Ezekiel 27:19)



From Strong's 8422, Tubal, unknown. Abraim Publication,

From the noun תבל (tebel), the whole world-economy, from the verb יבל (yabal), to flow or carry along.



5th son of Japheth, His descendents Josephus identifies with the Iberians and Cappadocians respectively; but they are most probably the Tybareni. They were a warlike people, and brought slaves and copper vessels to the market of Tyre, Isaiah 66:19Ezekiel 27:13.



From Strong's 4902 Meshek, from 4900, Mashak, to draw or drag.

6th son of Japheth, his descendants are the Moschi, inhabiting the Moschian Mountains, between the Black and the Caspian Seas. Theywere subdued by the Babylonians and the Persians. Some crossed the Caucasus, mingling with the Scythians. They were known as the Muscovs (Russians).



From Strong's 8494, Tiras, unknown; Abraim Publications, from the verb רסס (rasas), to moisten.

The 7th and youngest son of Japheth. Some believe his descendants were the Thracians. Others believe his descendants were the Tursenioi, a Pelasgian pirates, in the islands and coasts of the Aegean. They believe they are the same as the Etruscans of Italy. 

Map of Japheth's descendents

3. And the sons of Gomer: Ashkenaz, and Riphath, and Togarmah.



From Strong's 813, Ashkenaz, unknown; Abraim Publications, from (1) the noun אש ('esh), fire, (2) כ (ke), like or as, and (3) the verb נזה (naza), to sprinkle. Spreading Fire.

1st son of Gomer. His descendants settled on the north shore of Asia Minor and in Europe in the name Scandia, Scandinavia . Knobel believes the Ashkenaz is German race. However his descendants are named in Jeremiah 51:27 with Minni and Ararat, which are provinces of Armenia.



From Strong's 7384, Riphath or Diphath, unknown; Abraim Publications from the noun ריפה (ripa), some sort of beaten and dried grain or fruit or from the verb רפא (rapa), to heal.

2nd son of Gomer. He is called Diphath in 1 Chronicles 1:6.His descendants are associated with the Rhipaean mountains, the Carpathian range in the northeast of Dacia, the Paphlagonians.



From Strong's 8424, togarmah, unknown; Abraim Publications, from the noun גרם (gerem), bone.

3rd son of Gomer. His descendants are probably Armenians. They are associated Tubal, Javan and Mesech as supplying horses and mules to the Tyrians in Ezekiel 27:14.


4. And the sons of Javan: Elishah, and Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodanim.


From Strong's 473, elishah, unknown; Abraim Publications, from (1) the word אל ('el), God, and (2) the verb ישה (yasha), to support. or from (1) the word אל ('el), God, and (2) the verb ישע (yasha'), to save. God Saves.

Javan's first son. His descendents probably peopled Greece and the Peloponnesus, which was known by the name of Elis. In Ezekiel 27:7  they are identified as the source from which the Tyrians obtained their purple dyes. 



5 names in the bible

From Strong's 8659, tarshish, a precious stone (perhaps yellow Jasper); Abraim Publications, from the verb רשש (rashash), to beat down, shatter or from (1) the noun שיש (shayish), white alabaster, and (2) the noun תר (tor), dove. Translated as the sea coast, established, examination.

2nd son of Javan

2. A descendent of Benjamin, son of Bilhan 1 Chronicles 7:10

3. A prince One of the at the court of Ahasuerus Esther 1:14

4. The Hebrew name of a precious stone Exodus 28:20

5. A city known for its wealth and merchant fleet (1 Kings 10:22), associated with the Phoenicians in the south of Spain. The goods mentioned in Ezekiel 27:12 which Tarshish supplied to Tyre, classical writers associate withproductions of the Spanish peninsula. It was located between two mouths of the Guadalquiver. In Ezekiel 27:12,25, the city is associated with trade in silver, iron, tin, and lead to the Tyrian markets.  Again Tin was connected to Spain. The "ships of Tarshish" may have come to mean any large merchant ships bound on long voyages in any direction. 


From Strong's 3794, Kitti or Kittiyyi, unknown; Abraim Publications, from the verb כתת (katat), to beat or hammer.

Son of Javan. His descendants are the Greek, Latin Race. They lived along the coasts of the Mediterranean and its islands. Kittim is associated with Elisha (Sicily), Tarshish (Spain), and Dodanim (Rhodes). Kittim stands for Cyprus (Ezekiel 27:6, 7 & Isaiah 23:1, 12)



From Strong's 1721, Dodanim, from 7290c Rodanim, unknown; Abraim Publications, from the verb דדה (dada), to move or lead slowly; Leaders.

Son of Javan. His descendants (in secular history) are known of Dardani, inhabiting Illyricum. They are associated with the Rhodians (Ezekiel 27:15), the island of Rhodes.



5. Of these were the isles of the nations divided in their lands, every one after his tongue, after their families, in their nations.  
6. And the sons of Ham: Cush, and Mizraim, and Put, and Canaan.


From Strong's 4714, Mitsrayim, unknown; Abraim Publications, from מצור (masor), siege, from the verb צור (sur), to bind, besiege or from מצר (mesar), distress, from the verb צרר (sarar), to bind.

2nd son of Ham. His descendants form various African races, especially the Egyptians. Mizraim is the Hebrew word used to indicate Egypt.



From Strong's 6316, Put, unknown; Abraim Publications, unclear but perhaps from the Egyptian verb put, to give.

3rd son of Ham. Put is the only one of the sons of Ham who is not credited with descendants.


"The Time of Jacob's Trouble"

In Ezekiel's prophecy (38:1-13) the Lord names the chief actors in the struggle in Palestine; but we may not be too positive in our identifications. Magog, Meshech, Tubal, Gomar, Togomar, Javan and Tarshish were names of children of Noah's son Japheth—supposed to be the original settlers of Europe. Sheba and Dedan were descendants of Noah's son Ham—supposed to be the original settlers of northern Africa. Abraham and his posterity (Israel) were descendants of Noah's son Shem, and are supposed to have settled Armenia—Western Asia. (See Gen. 10:2-7.) This would seem to indicate in a general way that the attack will come from Europe—the "north quarters"—with allied mixed peoples. D551

7. And the sons of Cush: Seba, and Havilah, and Sabtah, and Raamah, and Sabteca; and the sons of Raamah: Sheba, and Dedan.


2 names in the Bible

From Strong's 5434, Seba, from 5433, caba, Drunkard

1st son of Cush.

2. A nation of North East Africa bordering Cush, on the West coast of the Red Sea. In Solomon's time it was independant. In Isaiah 45:14 its people are called csebha'im) (Sabaeim), rendered "Sabaeans,".



From Strong's 5454, Sabta or Sabtah; Abraim Publications, from an otherwise unused verb סבת (sabat), to beat or break and from the verb סבב (sabab), to turn or go around, encircle.

3rd son of Cush.



2 names in the Bible

From Strong's 7484. Ramah or Rama, Trembling, from 7482, raam, Thunder.

4th son of Cush. Father of the Cushite Sheba and Dedan. His descendants were traders who lived on the Persian Gulf. (Ezekiel 27:22)

2. The nation on the Persian Gulf. Ezekiel 27:22



From Strong's 5455. Sabteka, unknown; Abraim Publications, from an otherwise unused verb סבת (sabat), to beat or break and from (1) the verb סבב (sabab), to turn or encircle, and (2) the verb כאה (ka'a), to be disheartened.

5th son of Cush.



7 times in the Bible

From Strong's 7613, Sheba, unknown; Abraim Publications, Unknown, but perhaps Man, Drunk, Captive, Splinter, Seven or Oath

1st son of Raamah. His descendants settled with those of Dedan on the Persian Gulf. Some believe the Sabeans are his descendants, traders in gold and spices, inhabiting a country far from Israel (1 Kings 10:1 Isaiah 60:6 Jeremiah 6:20 Ezekiel 27:22 Psalm 72:15 Matthew 12:42). They were slave-traders (Joel 3:8) and desert-rangers (Job 1:15Job 6:19)

2. Son of Joktan, grandson of Eber, descendent of Shem, Genesis 10:28

3. Son of Jokshan, the son of Abraham and Keturah (Genesis 25:3). His descendants were Arab.

4. A nation from which the queen journeyed to meet Solomon. It was in Arabia Felix. Sheba had become a monarchy before the days of Solomon. Its queen brought him gold, spices, and precious stones (1 Kings 10:1-13) Jesus confirms the story in Matthew 12:42. The Arabs called her Bilqis. The Abyssinians say she came from Ethiopia, calling her Maqeda, and saying she had a son by Solomon. 

From Strong's 7652, Sheba; Abraim Publications, from שבע (shaba), seven or to swear.

5. A town allotted to Simeon (Joshua 19:2), probably Beer-Sheba.

6. Son of Bichri, of the family of Becher, descendant Benjamin. When David returned after the revolt of Absalom, Sheba took advantage of this state of things, and raised a revolt, proclaiming, "We have no part in David." He and his followers went to the North pursued by Joab. Sheba took refuge in Abel-Bethmaachah, a fortified. Joab laid siege to the city, The inhabitants threw Sheba's head over city wall, ending the siege. (2 Samuel 20:1-22)

7. A descendant of Gad. (1 Chronicles 5:13)



2 names in the Bible

2nd Son of Raamah

From Strong's 1719, Dedan or Dedaneh, unknown; Abraim Publications, from the verb דדה (dada), to move or lead slowly.

A son of Raamah. In Isaiah 21:13 the descendants are identified as traders in the wilds of Arabia, and Ezekiel mentions them as supplying Tyre with precious things (Ezekiel 27:20)

2. A son of Jokshan, Abraham's son by Keturah (1 Chronicles 1:32). His descendants lived on the Syrian border, near the territory of Edom. 

8. And Cush begat Nimrod: he began to be a mighty one in the earth.



From Strong's 5248. Nimrod, unknown; Abraim Publications, from the verb מרד (marad), to rebel.

Son of Cush. He created a kingdom in the land of Shinar, including the cities Babel, and Erech, and Accad, and Calneh. Babel (Babylon,) and Erech, (Uruk,) have been identified. Shinar is Southern Babylonia, afterward called Chaldea. Nimrod was a mighty hunter. He is most likely identified with Marduk, chief god of Babylon. He began the tower of Babel. Micah 5:5, 6  seems to indicate Nimrod founded Assyria, but there is a difference of opinion concerning this verses and that it was Asshur who founded it.

Genesis notes Nimrod as the founder of the Chaldee or Babylonian empire before Abraham's day. R2702

See Nimrod taken from The Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological, and Ecclesiastical Literature. James Strong and John McClintock; Haper and Brothers; NY; 1880.

Nimrod, A Mighty Hunter; From The Painting By Briton Riviere From The Book The Outline Of History By H.G.Wells Volume 1, Published 1920.
9. He was a mighty hunter before Jehovah: wherefore it is said, Like Nimrod a mighty hunter before Jehovah.


10. And the beginning of his kingdom was Babel, and Erech, and Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar.


From Strong's 894, Babel from 1101, balal, anoint (to mingle, mix, confuse, confound)

The capital of the country of Shinar (Chaldea). The city was surrounded by walls. Herodotus and Pliny report the walls enclosed 480 stades (60 Roman miles, 53 of our miles), Strabo says 385, Q. Curtius reports 368, Clitarchus states 365 and Ctesias reports 360 stades (40 miles).  It would have been five times bigger than London. The river Euphrates ran through the middle of the city, the two halves connected by a stone bridge. A palace stood on either end of the bridge. Various sizes of mounds (consisting of unbaked brickwork) are found throughout the left bank of city, one of which the Arabs identify with the tower of babel. The historian Berosus lists three dynasties. These consist of 49 Chaldean kings, reigning 458 years; 9 Arab kings, reigning 245 years; and 49 Assyrian monarchs, lasting 526 years.

According to the Bible, Babel was overrun in B.C. 539, as Jeremiah had prophesied, (Jeremiah 51:31) by Cyrus, under Darius, (Isaiah 21:1-9 Jeremiah 51:39). With the conquest of Cyrus Babel began to decay. It became a quarry from which all the tribes in the vicinity derived the bricks with which they have built their cities. The "great city" has thus emphatically "become heaps." (Jeremiah 51:37)  Excerpts taken from Smith's Bible Dictionary

See Babel The Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological, and Ecclesiastical Literature. James Strong and John McClintock; Haper and Brothers; NY; 1880.

Babylon Ruins (1930's); Lithograph of Babylon



From Strong's 751, Erek, unknown; Abraim Publications, from the verb ארך ('arak), to be long.

2nd city founded by Nimrod. Erech is the Semitic-Babylonian Uruk, from the Sumerian Unug, a word meaning seat, as in seat of government. It is identified with Warka ruins, on the left bank of the Euphrates. "The shape of the ruin is irregular, the course of the walls of the Northeast having been seemingly determined by that of the Nile canal (Shatt-en-Nil), which flowed on that side. The extreme length of the site from North to South is over 3,000 yds., and its width about 2,800 yds. This space is very full of remains of buildings; and the foundations of the walls, with their various windings, gateways and defenses, are traceable even now." International Standard Bible Encyclopedia; Erech Photo



From Strong's 390. Akkad, unknown; Abraim Publications, perhaps from the verb כדד (kadad), to bake or glow.

A city build by Nimrod. It was close to the Euphrates, opposite Sippara, but it's identification is unsure. It was the capital of the nation of Accad in Northern or upper Babylon. The Accadians were called the black faces in Babylonian inscriptions.



From Strong's 3641, Kalneh, unknown; Abraim Publications, from (1) the noun כל (kol), all or the whole, and (2) the verb נוה (nawa), to be a governmental center.

A city built by Nimrod. It's ruins have not been postively identified, although some identified with Niffer, a mound of ruins in the east bank of the Euphrates, 60 miles south-south-east from Babylon. It is called Called Calno, Isaiah 10:9 and Canneh, Ezekiel 27:23. It appears it was destroyed by one of the Assyrian kings (Amos 6:2).



From Strong's 8152, Shinar, unknown; Abraim Publications, from the root שער (s'r), which expresses intense negative emotion and the experience of violence or from the root נער (na'ar), to growl, shake or be young or from (1) the verb שנן (shanan), to be sharp, and (2) the noun עיר ('ir), city.

The territory is identified with Babylonia. The Tigris and Euphrates through it.  It was a plain. It is thought that Shinar was the name by which the Hebrews knew the lower Mesopotaimia.

11. Out of that land he went forth into Assyria, and builded Nineveh, and Rehoboth-ir, and Calah,


From Strong's 5210, Nineveh, unknown; Abraim Publications, from (1) the verb נון (nun), to propagate strongly, possibly combined with (2) the verb נוה(naweh), to be a seat of government; meaning unclear; several commentors say it means Dwelling of Ninus.

The capital of Assyria. It was called the great ninus by the Greeks and Romans. It was located on the east bank of the Tigris river. Its length was 30 miles, with a breadth of 10 miles. It is now a ruin.

Founded by Nimrod, Assyria was subsequently known to the Jews as "the land of Nimrod," (Micah 5:6). Assyria is connected to the Jews very early on, (Numbers 24:22,24). It is the focus of book of Jonah. Nahum prophecies against against Nineveh; (Nahum 3:18). Zephaniah ties the capital and the kingdom together, (Zephaniah 2:13). It is the last mention of Nineveh in the bible as an existing city. It was destroyed in 606 B.C.


Nineveh pdf

Nineveh Ruins 1(Overview of the walls and gates of Nineveh, with Nebi Yunus and Kouyunjik mounds location-WorldView-2, 13 November 2013 c DigitalGlobe. Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International)

Nineveh Ruins2



From Strong's 7344, Rehoboeth, broad places

The second city built by Nimrod or Asshur (according to the translator), it is unclear what this city was. Some think it to be Rebit Ninua, "streets of Nineveh," others suggest Assur, the old capital of Assyria.



From Strong's 3625, Kelach, from 3624, firm or rugged strength.

The third city built by Nimrod or Asshur (according to the translator). The meaning of the name is unknown, but perhaps in Sumerian etymology may mean"Holy Gate" (Ka-lah) or Ka-dingira = Bab-ili, "Gate of God". The ruins of the city are now called Nimroud. The ruins are situated on a rectangular platform on the bank of the old bed of the Tigris. 

Calah Ruins


12. and Resen between Nineveh and Calah (the same is the great city).


From Strong's 7449, Resen, from 7448, resen, a halter, a jaw.

The fourth city built by Nimrod or Asshur (according to the translator). The site is unknown but many consider it may be the ruins near the modern village of Selamiyeh. It was on the east side of the Tigris. 



13. And Mizraim begat Ludim, and Anamim, and Lehabim, and Naphtuhim,


From Strong's 3866, ludim, from 3865, Lud, unknown;

The first born of Mizraim. The fourth son of Shem was Lud; therefore, there are two groups called Ludites. "In Isaiah 66:19 Lud is mentioned with Tarshish and Pul (generally regarded as a mistake for Phut), Tubal, Javan, and the isles. Accepting this emendation, the passage agrees with Jeremiah 46:9, where the Ludim are spoken of with Kush and Phut as the allies of Egypt; and also with Ezekiel 27:10, where Lud is referred to with Persia and Put as soldiers of Tyre. Lud, again, is mentioned with Ethiopia (Gush), Put, all the mingled people, Cab, and the children of the land which is in league (or, margin "the land of the covenant"), which were all to fall by the sword (Ezekiel 30:5)." International Standard Bible Encyclopedia

The descendents of Ludim settled to the west of Egypt.



From Strong's 6047, anamin, unknown; Abraim Publications, from (1) the verb ענה (ana), to answer, and (2) the noun מים (mayim), waters.

The second son of Mizraim and the Egyptian tribe descended from him.



From Strong's 3853, lehabim, from 3851, lahab, flame, blade.

3rd son of Mizraim, identified with Rebu or Lebu (in Egyptian inscriptions). They are the ancestors of Libya and the Libyans. They resided in the northern part of Africa to the west of Egypt,



From Strong's 5320, Naphtuchim, unknown; Abraim Publications, from the verb פתח (patah), to open.

4th son of mizraim, his descendants are believed to have occupied a district of Egypt; however, exact identification is unknown.

14. and Pathrusim, and Casluhim (whence went forth the Philistines), and Caphtorim.


From Strong's 6625, pathrusim, from 6624, pathros, unknown; Abraim Publications, from pathros, from the Egyptian pe-te-res, south land or from the verb פתר (patar), to interpret.

6th son of Mizraim, the descendents lived in Pathros, probably part or all of upper Egypt, Thebes was a part of this area. It is mentioned in the prophecies of Isaiah, (Isaiah 11:11) Jeremiah (Jeremiah 44:1,15) and Ezekiel. (Ezekiel 29:1430:13-18)



From Strong's 3695, Kasluchim, unknown; Abraim Publications, Unclear but perhaps from the verb כסל (kasal), to be a mental invertebrate.

7th son of Mizraim, from which the Philistines are descended. They at first resided in Lower Egypt, on the sea-coast toward the southern border of Israel (Canaan).



From Strong's 6430. Pelishti, from 6429, Pelesheth, from 6428, palash, (act of mourning) perhaps to roll in.

The Philistines inhabited the southern seacoast of Canaan. They took the name of Philistia, Psalm 60:8 108:9. They migrated Egypt to Caphtor (Crete) and from there to Israel (Canaan). They drove out the Avim, De 2:23. They lived between the higher land of Judea and the Mediterranean, a fertile territory.  There were five kingdomsGaza, Ashkelon, Ashdod, Gath, and Ekron-and they oppressed Israel for about one hundred and twenty years. "They maintained their independence till David subdued them, 2 Samuel 5:17 8:1-18, from which time they continued in subjection to the kings of Judah, down to the reign of Jehoram, son of Johoshaphat, when they revolted, 2 Chronicles 21:16. Jehoram made war against them, and probably reduced them to obedience; for it is observed that they revolted again from Uzziah, who kept them under his sway using his whole reign, 2 Chronicles 26:6-7. During the unfortunate reign of Ahaz, the Philistines made great havoc in the territory of Judah; but his son and successor Hezekiah again subdued them, 2 Chronicles 28:18 2 Kings 18:8. They regained their full liberty, however, under the later kings of Judah; and we see by the menaces uttered against them by the prophets Isaiah, Amos, Zephaniah, Jeremiah, and Ezekiel, that they brought many calamities on Israel, for which God threatened to punish them with great misfortunes, Jeremiah 47:1-7 Ezekiel 25:15 Am 1:6-8 Obadiah 1:19 Zechariah 9:5. See also Nehemiah 13:23. They were partially subdued by Esar-haddon king of Assyria and afterwards by Psammetichus king of Egypt; and there is great probability that they were reduced by Nebuchadnezzar, as well as the other people of Syria, Phoenicia, and Palestine, during the siege of Tyre. They afterwards fell under the dominion of the Persians; then under that of Alexander the Great, who destroyed Gaza, the only city of the Philistines that dared to oppose him. They appear to have become entirely incorporated with the other inhabitants of the land under the Maccabees, and are no more mentioned as a distinct people." ATS Bible Dictionary

Philistine; Map of Philistia



From Strong's 3732, Kaphtori, from 3731 Kaphtor, from 3730 Kaphtor, capital, knob, bulb.

8th son of Mizraim. There are three theories of who the descendants of caphtorim were 1) Crete. "The country and people whence came the Philistines (Genesis 10:14 = 1 Chronicles 1:12 (here the clause "whence went forth the Philistines" should, probably come after Caphtorim); Deuteronomy 2:23 Jeremiah 47:4 Amos 9:7). Jeremiah (loc. cit.) calls it an "island"; there is evidence of ancient connection between Crete and Philistia; and the Philistines are called Cherethites, which may mean Cretans (see CHERETHITES). These considerations have led many to identify Caphtor with the important island of Crete. It should be noted, however, that the word 'i, used by Jeremiah, denotes not only "isle," but also "coastland." 2) Phoenicia "represented the Egyptian Kaft-ur, holding that Kaft was the Egyptian name for the colonies of Phoenicians in the Delta, extended to cover the Phoenicians in the north and their colonies. Kaft-ur, therefore, would mean "Greater Phoenicia." But the discovery of Kaptar among the names of countries conquered by Ptolemy Auletes in an inscription on the Temple of Kom Ombo is fatal to this theory." 3) Cilicia "A third theory would identify Caphtor with the Kafto of the Egyptian inscriptions. As early as the time of Thotmes III the inhabitants of this land, the Kafti, are mentioned in the records. In the trilingual inscription of Canopus the name is rendered in Greek by Phoinike, "Phoenicia." This seems to be an error, as the Kafti portrayed on the monuments have no features in common with the Semites. They certainly represent a western type. It is held that the Egyptian Kafto is a district in Asia Minor, probably Cilicia. The sea-pirates, the purasati, whom Rameses III subdued (circa 1200 B.C.), entered Syria from the north. The "R" in the name is the Egyptian equivalent of the Semitic "L". Therefore Purasati = Pilishti, "Philistines." And so it is proposed to identify Caphtor with Cilicia. A serious objection to this theory is the absence of the final "r" in Kafto. McCurdy's suggestion (HDB) that it represents a Hebrew waw, written as a vowel-letter in an original Kafto, does not carry conviction." International Standard Bible Encyclopedia

No definitive answer is available.


15. And Canaan begat Sidon his first-born, and Heth,



2 names in the Bible

From Strong's 6721, Tsidon, unknown; Abraim Publications, from the verb צוד (sud), to hunt or fish.

The first born son of Canaan.

2) The Greek form of the Phoenician name Zidon was a city on the Mediterranean Sea, twenty miles north of Tyre, founded by Sidon, the son of Canaan. It was known as a wealthy city of  trade and commerce. They had a large harbor. This portion of Canaan belonged to Asher but they never took possession of it (Joshua 11:8Jude 1:31). They were subdued successively by the Babyloniaus, Egyptians, Seleucidae, and Romans. It incurred the judgments of God for its sins, Ezekiel 28:21-24.



From Strong's 2845, cheth, unknown; Most translators list its meaning as terror, dread.

Son of Canaan, ancestor of the Hittites who lived in Hebron. 

16. and the Jebusite, and the Amorite, and the Girgashite,


From Strong's 2983, Yebusi, from 2982, Yebus, from 947 bus, to tread down or trample.

From Jebus, a descendant of Canaan. It is the original name of Jerusalem (Judges 19:10, 11 1 Chronicles 4:5). One of the seven nations doomed to destruction (Genesis 10:1615:21). They were defeated by Joshua, but were not driven out of Jebus till the time of David, who made it his capital. The site on which the temple was built belonged to Araunah, a Jebusite (2 Samuel 24:16-25; 1 Chronicles 21:24, 25).




From Strong's 567, emori, mountain dwellers, from 559, amar, to utter, to say.

Descendants of Emer (called Amurra or Amurri in the Assyrian and Egyptian inscriptions.), the fourth son of Canaan. They resided on west shore of the Dead Sea at Hebron, Shechem, Gilead and Bashan. One of the seven nations doomed to destruction (Genesis 15:16). They continued to the time of the Israelite invasion of Canaan. After the fall of King Sihon the Amorite kingdom disappears. The Syrians take its place. Their territory included the hill country of Judah and Ephraim. The term Amorites" is used sometimes used as a designation for all the inhabitants of Canaan (Genesis 15:16 Joshua 24:8, 18. One of the seven nations doomed to destruction (Genesis 10:1615:21).




From Strong's 1622, Girgashi, unknown; Abraim Publications, from words that describe clay or black mud or from the verb גרר (garar), to drag or drag away.

The descendents of a son of Canaan of whom little is known. One of the seven nations doomed to destruction (Genesis 10:1615:21).


17. and the Hivite, and the Arkite, and the Sinite,




From Strong's 2340, Chivvi, from 2333, chavvah, a tent village.

Descendents of a son of Canaan, which were scattered from Hermon to Gibeon in the south of Canaan. At the time of Jacob's return to Canaan, Hamor the Hivite was the "prince of the land" (Genesis 24:2-28). One of the seven nations doomed to destruction (Genesis 10:1615:21).




From Strong's 6208, Arqi, from 6207, araq to gnaw.

Descendents of a son of Canaan, of Phoenician stock. They lived in the city of Arka, 12 miles north of Tripoli, opposite the northern extremity of Lebanon.




From Strong's 5513, Sini, unknown; Abraim Publications, from the noun סנה (seneh), thorn bush, which associates to the verb אסם ('asam), to gather or store.

Descendants of Canaan who inhabited Sin, near Arka, in the northern part of the Lebanon district.


18. and the Arvadite, and the Zemarite, and the Hamathite: and afterward were the families of the Canaanite spread abroad.


From Strong's 721, arvadi, from avard, unknown; Abraim Publications, from the verb ערד ('arad), to flee or be free, or the verb רוד (rud), to wander restlessly.

Descendants of a son of Canaan, a colony from Sidon. They inhabited an island trading city off the coast of Syria some 30 miles North of Tripolis. It set on a barren rock covered with fortifications and houses several stories high. It was surrounded by a massive wall. It had an artificial harbor. Ezekiel 27:8, 11 describes its inhabitants as seamen and soldiers in the service of Tyre. It is now a small village.




From Strong's 6786, tsemari, from 6785 tsemer, wool.

Descendants of a son of Canaan, Phoenicians that inhabited the town of Sumra. It was located at the western base of the Lebanon range.




From Strong's 2577, chamathi, from 2574 Chamath, from 2573 Chemeth, a water skin.

Descendants of a son of Canaan whom it is believed to have founded the city of Hamath, which was on the northern border of Israel (1 Kings 8:65, Isaiah 11:11, Ezekiel 47:16). Little is known of them except that they are associated with the Hittites with whom they shared a border.




19. And the border of the Canaanite was from Sidon, as thou goest toward Gerar, unto Gaza; as thou goest toward Sodom and Gomorrah and Admah and Zeboiim, unto Lasha.


From Strong's 1642, gerar, from 1641, garar, to drag away. Some translators list it as dwelling place or region.

A town South of Gaza, where Abraham and Isaac stayed and met with Abimelech, king of Gerar (Genesis 20:1, 2). The site is unknown but is thought to be at Um Jerrar, near the coast in Southwest Gaza.




From Strong's 5804, azzah, unknown. Abraim Publications, from the verb עזז ('azaz), to be strong.

One of the five principle cities of the Philistines. It was also called Azzah, in Hebrew (Deuteronomy 2:231 Kings 4:24). It's first inhabitants were the Avims, who were conquered by the Caphtorims (Deuteronomy 2:23Joshua 13:2, 3), a Philistine tribe. In became part of Judah (Joshua 15:47Judges 1:18). It fell into the hands of the Philistines again in the time of Samson (Judges 16:1-3) It was here he pulled down the temple of Dagon (Judges 16:21-30). When the Philistines captured the Ark during the time of Eli, it was one of the cities who returned it with an offering to Jehovah (1 Samuel 6:17). Hezekiah defeated it. It was taken by various conquerors. It is mentioned once in the New Testament in connection with Philip and the eunuch (Acts 8:26). It lay 40 miles South of Jaffa, on a hill rising 60 to 200 ft. above the plain, 2 1/2 miles distant from the sea. It was fertile ground with many wells. It was on the caravan route on border of the desert between Syria and Egypt. It still exists today.

Gaza 1862; Map of Area of the Five Philistine Cities; Map of Five Philistine Cities Close-up; Gaza




From Strong's 5467, sedom, unknown; Abraim Publications, from an unused verb סדם (sadam), to burn and from the verb שדד (sadad), to harrow or plough a field, or the verb שדד (shadad), to act violently. From (1) the verb סדד (sadad), to join or יסד (yasad), to assemble, and (2) the pronoun ־מ (-m), their.

A city of Syria, usually mentioned along with Gomorrah, Admah, and Zeboim. It is also mentioned with Bela or Zoar (Genesis 14:2). Jehovah destroyed it by fire from heaven along with Gomorrah, Zeboim, and Admah, for its wickedness, Genesis 19:1-20. The area later became covered by water from the Dead Sea. No traces of the cities remain. The prophets cite it as an example of the destruction for other wicked cities. (Jeremiah 49:18; Matthew 10:15Matthew 11:24 2 Peter 2:6 Jude 1:7)

Sodom; Map of Sodom;



From Strong's 6017, amorah, from 6014b, amar, to deal tyrannically.

A wicked city mentioned along with Sodom, Admah, and Zeboim. Jehovah destroyed it by fire from heaven along with Sodom, Zeboim, and Admah, for its wickedness, Genesis 19:1-20. Their destruction is an example for those who live an ungodly life (2 Peter 2:6Jude 1:4-7) It is now covered by water.




From Strong's 126, admah, from 120 Adam, man, mankind. Abraim Publications, from אדם ('dm), to produce or be red. Most translate this earthy.

A wicked city mentioned along with Sodom, Gomorrah, and Zeboim. Jehovah destroyed it by fire from heaven along with Sodom, Zeboim, and Gomorrah, for its wickedness, Genesis 19:1-20. It is now under water.




From Strong's 6636, tseboim, tseboyim, from 6643b, tsebi, gazelle.

A wicked city mentioned along with Sodom, Gomorrah, and Admah. Jehovah destroyed it by fire from heaven along with Sodom, Admah, and Gomorrah, for its wickedness, Genesis 19:1-20. It is now under water.



From Strong's 3962, lesha, unknown; Abraims Publications, from (1) the particle ל (le), to or towards, and (2) the verb שעה (sha'a), to delight in or gape at. Most translators translate it as fissure.

A place named on the southern boundary of the Canaanites, marking the end of Canaanite territory. Some identify it with Callirrhoe, near the eastern shore of the Dead Sea.



20. These are the sons of Ham, after their families, after their tongues, in their lands, in their nations.





21. And unto Shem, the father of all the children of Eber, the elder brother of Japheth, to him also were children born.


5 names in the Bible

From Strong's 5677, eber, region beyond, from 5674, abar, alienate.

Son of Salah, the great-grandson of Shem and father of Peleg and Joktan. He founded the Hebrew race (10:21Numbers 24:24), from which it takes its name. He is called Heber in Luke 3:35.

2. One of the seven heads of the families of the tribe of Gad. (1 Chronicles 5:13).

3. The oldest of the three sons of Elpaal the Benjamite. (1 Chronicles 8:12)

4. A head of a family in Jerusalem, of Benjamin. (1 Chronicles 8:12)

5. A head of a priestly family. (Nehemiah 12:20)



22. The sons of Shem: Elam, and Asshur, and Arpachshad, and Lud, and Aram.


7 names in the Bible

From Strong's 5867, eylam, unknown; Abraim Publications, from the verb עלם ('alam), to be hidden. Many translate it High, Highlands.

The oldest son of Shem.

2. The country eventually became part of Persia. Elam was founded by Shem's son, Elam. It lay to the East of Babylon. It covered 1000 miles to the Mediterranean sea. The capital was Shusham or Susa. The Kings of Elam often envaded Babylon. It was conquered by the Assyrians and when they were conquered by Persia.

3. A Korhite Levite in the time of King David. (1 Chronicles 26:3)

4. A leader of the tribe of Benjamin. (1 Chronicles 8:24)

5. 1254 children of Elam which returned with Zerubbabel from Babylonia. (Ezra 2:7Nehemiah 7:12) They signed the covenant with Nehemiah. (Nehemiah 10:14)

6. A second Elam who returned returned with Zerubbabel, (Ezra 2:31Nehemiah 7:34)

7. A priest who accompanied Nehemiah at the dedication of the new wall of Jerusalem. (Nehemiah 12:42)


Elam Map




From Strong's 742, Arphaxad, from 775, Arpakshad, unknown; Abrams Publications, meaning unclear.

3rd son of Shem, ancestor of Jesus.



2 names in the Bible

From Strong's 3865, lud, unknown; Abraim Publications, from the verb לוז (luz), to bend or turn aside or from the verb ילד (yalad), to beget.

4th son of Shem, ancestors of the Lydians.

2. A people descended from Mizraim's son (Lud, Ludim) in Africa (Ezek. 27:1030:5), on the west of Egypt. The people called Lud were noted archers. Isaiah 66:19; Jeremiah 46:9




5 names in the Bible

From Strong's 758, aram, unknown; Abraim Publications, from the verb רום (rum), to be high.

5th son of Shem, ancestor of the Syrians.

2. Syria, a region northeast of Israel. It extended from the Tigris river on the East nearly to the Mediterranean on the west, and to the Taurus range on the north. Orginally called Aram. The word Syria is probably Aramean.

3. A son of Kemuel and descendant of Nahor. (Genesis 22:21)

4. A son of Shamer, of the tribe of Asher. (1 Chronicles 7:34)

5. A Son of Esrom or Hezron, the Greek form of the Hebrew Ram. (Matthew 1:3,4Luke 3:33)


23. And the sons of Aram: Uz, and Hul, and Gether, and Mash.


5 names in the Bible

From Strong's 5780, uts, from 5779, uts, counsel, plan.

First son of Aram.

2. The land of Uz where Job lived (1:1Jeremiah 25:20Lamentations 4:21). It was to the east or south-east of Israel and north of Edom. It was close to to the tribe of the Temanites (Job 2:11), the Shuhites (Job 2:11), the Naamathites (Job 2:11), the Buzites (Job 32:2), and was raided by the Chaldeans (Job 1:17), and the Sabeans (Job 1:15)

3. A second land of Uz mentioned in of Jeremiah 25:20 and inhabited by or in subjection to the Edomites (Lamentations 4:21)

4. A son of Nahor (Abraham's brother) by Milcah, and older brother of Buz (Genesis 2:21). 

5. A son of Dishan, son of Seir the Horite (Genesis 36:28).




From Strong's 2343, chul, from 2343b, chul, chil, to be firm or strong; Abraims Publication, from the verb חול (hul), to writhe. Many translate this as circle.

2nd son of Aram, the people identified with him is uncertain.



From Strong's 1666, gether, unknown; Abraims Publications, from (1) the noun גת (gat), winepress, and (2) the verb ראה (ra'a), to see or understand orf rom (1) the noun גת (gat), winepress, and (2) the verb תור (tur), to explore or survey or from the verb גור (gur), to fear.

3rd son of Aram, of the people descended from him, nothing is known



From Strong's 4851, mash, unknown; Abraim Publications, from the verb מוש (mush), to depart, or משה (masha), to draw out, or משך (mashak), to draw or drag.

The fourth and youngest son of Aram, called Meshech in 1 Chronicles 1:17. It is thought his descendents inhabited a range which forms the northern boundary of Mesopotamia, between the Tigris and Euphrates.

24. And Arpachshad begat Shelah; and Shelah begat Eber.


2 names in the Bible

From Strong's 7974, Shelach, from 7971, Shalach, to send. Translators use petition to describe this word.

A son of Arpachshad and father of Eber, an ancestor of Jesus.

2. The youngest son of Judah and the daughter of Shua the Canaanite (Genesis 38:5, 11, 14, 26Genesis 46:12 Numbers 26:20 (16); 1 Chronicles 2:31 Chronicles 4:21). His descendants are the Shelanites (Numbers 26:20 (16)). This may be the same family called Shilonite in Nehemiah 11:5 1 Chronicles 9:5.


25. And unto Eber were born two sons: The name of the one was Peleg. For in his days was the earth divided. And his brother's name was Joktan.


From Strong's 6839, peleg, from 6385 palag, to split or divide.

First son of Eber throught which the Jews are descended, an ancestor of Jesus. His name refers the confounding of its language and dispersal of the peoples recorded in Genesis 11:1-9.



From Strong's 3355, Yoqtan, unknown; Abraim Publications, from the verb קטן (qaton), to be small.

2nd son of Eber and father of 13 Arab tribes of Central and Southern Arabia.

26. And Joktan begat Almodad, and Sheleph, and Hazarmaveth, and Jerah,


From Strong's 486, almodad, unknown; Abraim Publications, from (1) the word אל ('el), which either means God or is a particle of negation, (2) possibly the particle of inquiry מה (meh), "what?", and (3) either the verb מדד (madad), to measure, or the noun דוד (dod), beloved. Most translators call it measure.

First born of Joktan whose descendents are a tribe of Southern Arabia.



From Strong's 8026, shelaph, drawn out.

2nd son of Joktan, a Yemenite tribe, named on Sabean inscriptions, located in Southern Arabia.



From Strong's 2700,  chatsarmaveth, from 2691b, chatser, settled, abode, settlement, village and from 4194, maveth, death.

3rd son of Joktan, descendents dwelt in Arabia-Felix. It is thought that this is now the province of Hadramaut, on the Indian Ocean east of the modern Yemen.



From Strong's 3392. Yerach, from 3394, yareach, moon.

4th son of Joktan, decendants, tribe of Southern Arabia.

27. and Hadoram, and Uzal, and Diklah,


3 names in the Bible

1913, hadoram, unknown; Abraim Publications, from (1) the verb הדד (hdd), to thunder, and (2) the verb רום (rum), to be high or from (1) the noun דור (dor), generation, and (2) the verb רום (rum), to be high or from (1) the verb הדר (hadar), glory, and (2) the verb רום (rum), to be high or from (1) the verb הדה (hada), to snake-charm, and (2) the verb רום (rum), to be high. It is translated exalted, noble honor, their power or beauty.

5th son of Joktan, his descendants have not been identified.

2. The son of Tou (Toi), king of Hamath, who was sent by his father to congratulate David on his victory over Hadarezer, king of Syria (1 Chronicles 18:10. He is called Joram 2 Samuel 8:10).

3. The collector of taxes under Solomon and Rehoboam. He was stoned by the Israelites after they had revolted from Rehoboam (2 Chronicles 10:18). He is called Adoram in (2 Samuel 20:24) and called Adoniram (1 Kings 4:6).



From Strong's 187, uzal, from 235, azal, to go.

6th son of Joktan, his descendants founded the capital of Yemen, called Auzal (later called Sana). It stood high above sea-level in a fertile land. It is traversed by a river bed which in the rainy season becomes a torrent. It sets 150 miles from Aden and 100 miles from the coast of the Red Sea.



From Strong's 1853, Diqlah, unknown; Abraim Publications, perhaps from the verb דקל (daqal), to rock to and fro. Some translate it Palm Grove.

7th son of Joktan, his descendants may have lived in a place with palms in Southern Arabia.

28. and Obal, and Abimael, and Sheba,


From Strong's 5745, obal, unknown; Abraim Publications, rom an Arabic verb meaning to be bulky or to be bare or from (1) the verb עוב ('ub), to becloud, and בל (bal), not. Some translate it as stripped bare.

8th son of Joktan, founder of an Arba tribe. Called Ebal in 1 Chronicles 1:22.



From Strong's 39, abimael, from 1, ab, father, a father is El, God is father.

9th son of Joktan, descendants are of Arabia, perhaps Mali.



29. and Ophir, and Havilah, and Jobab: all these were the sons of Joktan.


2 names in the Bible.

From Strong's 211, ophir, unknown; Abraim Publications, from the verb אוה ('wh), to desire or draw near, and (2) an Arabic synonym of the previous or from the noun אפר ('eper), ashes. Many translators use abundance.

10th son of Joktan, descendants of Southern Arabia.

2. A city or place South or Southeast of Israel. Its location is unsure. Solomon sent vessels from Ezion-geber at the head of the Gulf of Aqabah, returning with great stores of gold, precious stones and "almug"-wood (1 Kings 9:281 Kings 10:11 2 Chronicles 9:10 1 Kings 22:48 2 Chronicles 8:18).  The gold from Ophir was very pure (Psalm 45:9 Job 28:16 Isaiah 13:12 1 Chronicles 29:4) Ophir is called Uphaz (Jeremiah 10:9 Daniel 10:5).



5 names in the Bible

From Strong's 3103, yobab, from 2980, yabab, to cry in a shrill voice.

12th son of Joktan, father of an Arabian tribe.

2. A king of Edom, succeeded by Bela (Genesis 3:341 Chronicles 1:4445).

3. A Canaanite King of Madon; who attempted to oppose Joshua's conquest and were routed by him at Meron. (Joshua 11:1)

4. A Benjamite (1 Chronicles 8:9)

5. A Benjamite (1 Chronicles 8:18)


30. And their dwelling was from Mesha, as thou goest toward Sephar, the mountain of the east.


From Strong's 4852, Mesha, unknown. Abraim Publications, from the verb מיש (mysh), to depart or remove.

A place on the eastern frontier of the territory of Joktan, may have been in the region of Bassora, at the northwest end of the Persian Gulf.

2. The eldest son of Caleb, his brother was Jerahmeel.. (1 Chronicles 2:42)

3.  A king of Moab, paying an enormous tribute to Ahab king of Israel, but revolting at his death, 2 Kings 1:1; 3:4-27. Joram the son of Ahab, with the aid of Judah and Edom, made war upon him, and besieged him in his capital. King Mesha sought the aid of his gods by sacrificing his own son on the city wall.

4. The son of Shabaraim, of Benjamin, by his wife Hodesh, who bore him in the land of Moab. (1 Chronicles 8:9)



From Strong's 5611, sephar, from 5612, sepher, a missive, a book, writing, document.

The Eastern most territory of Joktan, some think Arabic Qafar or Zaphar, on the Indian Ocean, between the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea.

31. These are the sons of Shem, after their families, after their tongues, in their lands, after their nations.  
32. These are the families of the sons of Noah, after their generations, in their nations: and of these were the nations divided in the earth after the flood.