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American Standard Version with Notes

This is an ongoing process. Please check back for regular updates.

An * beside a note indicates it was taken from a bible student source.

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The following resources were used for research:

Genesis Chapter Fourteen


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50



1. And it came to pass in the days of Amraphel king of Shinar, Arioch king of Ellasar, Chedorlaomer king of Elam and Tidal king of Goiim,


From Strong's 569, amraphel, unknown; Abraim Publications, Unclear, but perhaps from (1) the verb אמר (amar), to talk or command, and (2) the verb אפל ('pl), to be dark.

Amraphel is identified with Babylonian king Hammurabi , where he is mentioned as the king of Shinar (Babylonia). He fought against Bera king of Sodom, Birsha king of Gomorrah, Shinab king of Admah, Shemeber king of Zeboiim, and the king of Bela or Zoarth, in alliance with Arioch king of Ellasar, Chedorlaomer king of Elam, and Tidal king of Nations. The kings of Sodom and Gomorrah, and their allies, fled. Captives were taken, among them, Lot. Abraham and his men went in pursuit and rescue the captives and recovered the loot.



From Strong's 746, aryowk, unknown; Abraim Publications, from the noun ארי ('ary), lion, from the verb ארה ('ara), to gather.

The vassal king of Ellasar, under Chedorlaomer, king of Elam, who accompanied him on the expedition against Sodom, Gomorrah and other states. It is thought that Arioch is Eri-Aku , king of Larsa, Ellasar being for Al-Larsa (Sinqara in central Babylonia).



From Strong's 495, ellasar, unknown; Abraim Publications, from (1) the word אל ('el), God or denoting motion toward, and (2) the verb סרר (sarar), to be rebellious.

The city whose Semitic-Babylonian name is (al) Larsa, the city Larsa. Its Sumerian name is Ararwa, light-abode. Its ruins (senqara) are located on the East bank of the Euphrates, midway between Erech and Ur of the Chaldees. It was one of the Babylonian centers of sun-god worship.

Ellasar map



From Strong's 3540, Kedorlaomer, unknown; Abraim Publications, Unclear, but perhaps from (1) the verb אמר (amar), to talk or command, and (2) the verb אפל ('pl), to be dark.

King of Elam, Chedorlaomer made the cities in the region of the Dead Sea his tributaries. When they rebelled, he came with four other kings and overran the country south and east of the Jordan. Lot was among his captives. Abraham and his allies retrieved the captives and the booty.




From Strong's 8413, tidal, unknown; Abraim Publications, Unclear but perhaps from the verb ידה (yada), to praise, and על ('al), for.

A chief of several allied tribes who joined Chedorlaomer in subduing his rebeling vassals. He was defeated by Abraham. "He is called "king of nations" (גּוֹיַם, goyim),'which Symmachus interprets Scythians, and others Galilee, both on very slender, if not inaccurate, grounds. Rawlinson suggests, for equally precarious reasons (Ancient Monarchies, 1, 55, note),that the name is probably Turanian; but he justly remarks that, from the title given to Tidal, "it is reasonable to understand that he was a chief over various nomadic tribes to whom no special tract of country could be assigned, since at different times of the year they inhabited different portions of Lower Mesopotamia. This is the case with the Arabs of these parts at the present day." McClintock and Strong Biblical Cyclopedia



From Strong's 1471, goy, from 1458, gav, the back, translated people or nations.

Tidal is called king of nations. It is unclear is this was a title or the name of a place. Some identify it with Gutium. The Hebrew word is similarly retained in Joshua 12:23.


But the University of Pennsylvania has exhumed more than forty thousand burnt clay tablets full of written records dating back 4,000 years before the Christian era, and so 2,000 years before the time of Abraham. The destructive critics say that the war of the kings as recorded in Gen. 14 is all a myth, as at that early age of the world such armies could not have been collected. But on some of the 40,000 tablets in the possession of the University of Pennsylvania taken from the site of this ancient city, the names of the very kings who carried on this war are given just as they are recorded in Gen. 14, and some of the spoils which they carried off from Chalneh have been found in excavating the ancient city of Susa. R3220

2. that they made war with Bera king of Sodom, and with Birsha king of Gomorrah, Shinab king of Admah, and Shemeber king of Zeboiim, and the king of Bela (the same is Zoar).


From Strong's 1298, Bera, unknown; Abraim Publications, from (1) either ב (be), in, or בן (ben), son, and (2) the noun רע (ra), evil.

The King of Sodom who rebelled against Chedorlaomer, resulting in Sodom's defeat and the capture of Abraham's nephew, Lot.



From Strong's 1306, birsha, unknown; Abraim Publications, from (1) either the prefix ב (be), in, or the noun בן (ben), son, and (2) the verb רשע (rasha), to be wicked.

The king of Gomorrah who joined in the rebellion against Chedorlaomer and who suffered defeat.



From Strong's 8134, shinab, unknown; Abraim Publications, from אדם ('dm), to produce or be red.

The king of Admah, who with his confederates was conquered by Chedorlaomer.



From Strong's 8038, shemeber, name of pinion, from 8034, shem, name and from 83, eber, pinions.

The king of Zeboiim, who joined with other kings in rebelling against Chedorlaomer and was defeated.



3 names in the Bible

From Strong's 1106, bela, unknown;

The city also called Zoar where Lot escaped to after the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah, on the shore of the Dead Sea, not far from Sodom.

2. The eldest son of Benjamin (Numbers 26:38; also called Belah in  Genesis 46:21).

3. A son of Ahaz, a Reubenite. (1 Chronicles 5:8)





3. All these joined together in the vale of Siddim (the same is the Salt Sea).



From Strong's 7708. siddim, from 7702, sadad, to harrow.

A broad, flattish tract, enclosed on each side by a definite range of hills. It contained a multitude of bitumen-pits sufficient materially to affect the issue of the battle. In this valley the kings of the five allied cities of Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, Zeboim and Bela engaged with Chedorlaomer in battle. . the Salt Sea covers the actual space formerly occupied by the vale of Siddim.



Dead Sea; Dead Sea Photo; Dead Sea Map

4. Twelve years they served Chedorlaomer, and in the thirteenth year they rebelled.






5. And in the fourteenth year came Chedorlaomer, and the kings that were with him, and smote the Rephaim in Ashteroth-karnaim, and the Zuzim in Ham, and the Emim in Shaveh-kiriathaim,


2 names in the Bible

From Strong's 7497, rapha, from 7503, raphah, sink and relax.

All the gigantic races of the Canaanites were call Rephaim. There were Rephaim beyond Jordan, at Ashtaroth Karnaim, in the time of Abraham and in the time of Moses. Og king of Bashan was of the Rephaim. His descendants dwelt in the land of Canaan, (Joshua 12:4.) They lived in the city of Gath in David's time. (1 Chronicles 20:4-6) Goliath was a Rephaim, from the family of the Anakim. They were strong and violent.

2. The Valley of the Rephaim is mention in Joshua 15:8. It is where David defeated the Philistines. (2 Samuel 5:18) It is described as a was a broad valley, beginning near the valley of Hinnom. It extended several miles south-west from Jerusalem, where it narrows and continues towards the Mediterranean. It belonged to Judah, but was near the border of Benjamin.

In Job 26:5Psalm 88:10Proverbs 2:18 the word is rendered dead things.

Rephaim and Valley Of; Valley of the Rephaim photo; Valley of the Rephaim map



From Strong's 6255, ashteroth-Qarnayim, Ashteroth of the Double Horns, from 6252, ashtarowth, unknown and from 7161, qeren, a horn. Abraim Publications, ashteroth, from (1) the verb עשת ('ashat), to be cohesive, and (2) the noun תרת (torot), instructions, laws and from (1) the name Ashtaroth, and (2) the verb קרן (qaran), to radiate or have horns.

Astaroth was the city of Og, king of Bashan, but the name ashteroth-karnaim only occurs once in the bible. It is were Chedorlaomer defeated the Rephaim. Some sources believe it is now Es-Sanamein , on the Haj route, about 25 miles south of Damascus.



From Strong's 2104, zuzim, from 2123b, ziz, abundance, fullness.

A people that dwelt in Ham, a region East of the Jordan, conquered by Chedorlaomer. Some have identified them with a race of giants called the Zamzummim in Deuteronomy 2:20.



From Strong's 368, eymiym, terrors;

A race of giants, very warlike who were conquered by Chedorlaomer. Later they were conquered by the moabites. (Deuteronomy 2:10, 11)




From Strong's 7740, shaveh, from 7737, shavah, avail; Abraim Publications, from (1) the verb שוה (shawa), to be smooth or even, and (2) the noun קריה (qiryah), city.

Here the Emim dwelt at the time of Chedorlaomer's conquest. This name occurs only once in the Bible. The name Kiriathaim is mentioned later but unidentified. Shaveh Kiriathaim may have been the valley where the town lay.

6. and the Horites in their mount Seir, unto Elparan, which is by the wilderness.


From Strong's 2753, chori, from 2356, chor, a hole.

The descendents of Seir who lived in the limestone caves in Edom. They were a branch of the Hivites. (1 Chronicles 1:38) They were removed by the Edomites and disappeared.




3 names in the Bible

From Strong's 8165, seir, from 8181, sear, hair.

A Horite, ruler of the land South to Southwest of the Dead Sea. (Genesis 36:20)

2. A mountainous region occupied by the Edomites. It extended along the eastern side of the Arabah from the south-eastern extremity of the Dead Sea to near the Akabah, or the eastern branch of the Red Sea. This territory was occupied by the Horites. They were expelled by the Edomites. (Genesis 32:333:14, 16).

3. A mountain of Judah, near Kirjath-jearim, Joshua 15:10.  It is on the north boundary of the territory of Judah.. It lay westward of Kirjath-jearim, and between it and Beth-shemesh.

Seir; Mt. Seir map; Mt. Seir photo



365 el paran, from 352d, ayil, a terebinth, from 197, ulam, porch, from 193, uwl, mighty, and from 6290, paran, from 6288, porah, bough,

This was the point farthest South reached by the king Chedorlaomer in his attack on Sodom and its alies. It is a desert lying south of Israel. It lies west of the valley El Arabah, which runs from the Dead Sea to the Gulf of Akaba. The Israelites wandered near or in this region thirty-eight years.


Paran Map



7. And they returned, and came to En-mishpat (the same is Kadesh), and smote all the country of the Amalekites, and also the Amorites, that dwelt in Hazazon-tamar.


From Strong's 5880, en mishpat, spring of judgment, from 5871, a spring of water, from 4941, mishpat, judgment.

This area is only mentioned once in the Bible. It is equated with the more familiar town of Kadesh.



From Strong's 6946, qadesh, sacred, from 6944, qodesh, apartness, sacredness.

A desert on the south-eastern border of Israel, 165 miles from Horeb, in the desert of Zin" (Numbers 13:3-26) It was on the border of Edom (20:16). Here Moses sends out the spies. (13:18-31). The Israelites remained a considerable time at Kadesh. They were not permitted to go into the promised land. Later at this location, Miriam died and was buried. Here Moses disobeyed Jehovah by striking the rock. (Numbers 27:14Deuteronomy 9:23Psalm 106:32, 33)

It has been identified with Ain el-Kadeis, about 12 miles east-south-east of Beersheba.

2. A city of the Hittites, located on the left bank of the Orontes, 4 miles south of the Lake of Homs. It is identified with a mound called Tell Neby Mendeh. The city was captured by Rameses II. It is mentioned as the Northern boundary of Israel. (2 Samuel 24:6)


Kadesh Map



From Strong's 6003, amaleqi, from 6002, amaleq, from amal, to labor or toil.

A people dwelt who south of Israel, between Mount Seir and the border of Egypt. They lived migrating parties, in caves or in tents. They attacked them in the desert of Rephidim. Jehovah condemns them extermination. (Exodus 17:8-16) They attacked Israel again on border of the promised land. (Numbers 14:45) Saul attacked and destroyed them, (1 Samuel 15:1-35}, a few escaped, David defeated them. (1 Samuel 27:8) They were destroyed bythe Simeonites, in the time of Hezekiah.  (1 Chronicles 4:43) Haman, the last of the race , was executed in the book of Esther.



From Strong's 2688, chathatson tamar, from 2686, chatsats, to divide and 8558, tamar, palm or date palm.

A location identified with Engedi. (2 Chronicles 20:2)

engedi map


8. And there went out the king of Sodom, and the king of Gomorrah, and the king of Admah, and the king of Zeboiim, and the king of Bela (the same is Zoar); and they set the battle in array against them in the vale of Siddim;





9. against Chedorlaomer king of Elam, and Tidal king of Goiim, and Amraphel king of Shinar, and Arioch king of Ellasar; four kings against the five.


10. Now the vale of Siddim was full of slime pits; and the kings of Sodom and Gomorrah fled, and they fell there, and they that remained fled to the mountain.



11. And they took all the goods of Sodom and Gomorrah, and all their victuals, and went their way.

LOT had not lived a great while in Sodom when king Chedorlaomer descended upon the Sodomites with an army and took away many persons and great spoils of flocks, herds, etc., including Lot and his family and possessions. Word of this affair reached Abraham, who armed his own servants, 318, and with two associates pursued the victors, who, doubtless expecting no army or night attack, were careless as to their defenses, and being surprised by a night attack were routed; and Lot and his family and goods, and the Sodomites and their goods were released. The conduct of Abraham in connection with this matter was most noble and unselfish. Not only did he inconvenience himself and all his affairs for the sake of others, but subsequently he refused any share of the booty which he had saved. Would that the children of God could fully appreciate such benevolence and copy it more in the little affairs of life! Much of the distress prevailing in the world is the direct or indirect result of selfishness, and all of the Lord's people should be on the alert to practice and to exemplify the opposite spirit of benevolence in the little things as well as in the great things of life; and should remember that selfishness is a depravity, which needs to be fought against, and to be, so far as possible, overcome by the new nature.

One would have supposed that Lot's vexatious experience in Sodom, and after experience in his capture and subsequent deliverance by his uncle, would have led him to desire a reunion with his uncle, with a keener appreciation than ever of the fact that God was with his uncle, blessing him and guiding his affairs and interests. But this does not seem to have been the case: he was still willing to cast his lot with the ungodly. He reminds us of the words of the Psalmist, "Blessed is the man that walketh not in the counsel of the ungodly, nor standeth in the way of sinners, nor sitteth in the seat of the scornful." (Psa. 1:1) Lot did not pursue this course, and hence failed of a blessing. It was not sufficient that his righteous soul should be "vexed" continually by the misconduct of those about him; his love for righteousness should have been such as to lead him to the sacrifice of temporal interests on behalf of his own heart and on behalf of the interests of his family. Let all of the Lord's people who may find themselves in a similar position remember the Apostle's words, "Make straight paths for your feet, lest that which is lame be turned out of the way; but let it rather be healed."—Heb. 12:13. R2853


12. And they took Lot, Abram's brother's son, who dwelt in Sodom, and his goods, and departed.


13. And there came one that had escaped, and told Abram the And there came one that had escaped, and told Abram the Hebrew: now he dwelt by the oaks of Mamre, the Amorite, brother of Eshcol, and brother of Aner; and these were confederate with Abram.: now he dwelt by the oaks of Mamre, the Amorite, brother of Eshcol, and brother of Aner; and these were confederate with Abram.


From Strong's 5680, ibri, from 5677, eber, region beyond, from 5674, abar, to pass over, through, or by, pass on.

This is the name applied to Abraim by the Canaanites because he had crossed the Euphrates. It comes from Eber, an ancestor of Abraham. The Israelites were called Hebrews to distinguish between the races east and west of the Euphrates. The term Israelite was used by the Jews of themselves among themselves; the term Hebrew was the name by which they were known to foreigners.



From Strong's 812, eshkol, from 811, eshkol, a cluster.

A brother of Mamre and Aner, the Amorites. He joined Abraham in recovering Lot.

2. A valley from which the Israelite spies obtained a cluster of grapes. It is believed to join Hebron on the North. (Numbers 13:23, 14Numbers 32:9 Deuteronomy 1:24)



From Strong's 6063, unknown.

A brother of Mamre and Eshcol, the Amorites, who joined Abraham in recovering Lot.

2. A city in the territory of Manasseh given to Kohath, a descendant of Levi. (1 Chronicles 6:70).

14. And when Abram heard that his brother was taken captive, he led forth his trained men, born in his house, three hundred and eighteen, and pursued as far as Dan.


From Strong's 1835, dan, judge, from 1777, din, to judge.

  1. The fifth son of Jacob, and the first by Bilhah, Rachel's maid. (Genesis 30:6). Dan had only one son, but became the most numerous tribe other than Judah. (Genesis 46:23) The tribe's portion of land was the smallest with many natural advantages. (Joshua 19:48) On the north and east were the tribes of Ephraim and Benjamin. On the southeast and south was Judah. The Amorites forced them from the fertile land into the mountains. (Judges 1:34) Judges 18. The Danites attacked a peacful people (Judges 18:7,10) and took possession of their land. In the time of David Dan is mentioned in the list of (1 Chronicles 27:22) After this mention, the name disappears, except in a Northern city. Dan is omitted from the list of those who were sealed by the angel in the vision of St. John. (Revelation 7:5-7)

2. A city (Laish in Jud 18:29) located at the northern extremity of Israel, in the tribe of Naphtali. "From Dan to Beersheba" denotes the whole land of Israel as the city of Dan was the northern city, the city of Beersheba the southern one. The city lay at the foot of Mount Hermon, near one source of the Jordan. Laish formally belonged to Zidon. It became the location of one of the golden calves of Jeroboam. (1 Kings 12:28) Little is left of it today.

Ruins of the City of Dan; Dan Map; Dan


Although Abraham was noted as a man of peace, we find him very loyal to principle in connection with this trouble.Two of the captured ones escaped and brought word to Abraham of the capture of the Sodomites, with Lot and his family. The man of God was not long in deciding respecting his proper course. Summoning all of his servants capable of assisting in such an emergency, 318 in number, he armed them and set out for the deliverance of his nephew. We are not to suppose that the army which captured the Sodomites was a large one, even though the names of four kings are introduced in connection with it. This was not a very long time after the flood, and the entire population was not as yet very large. The suggestions of higher critics about vast armies, great cities, etc., at this time, are out of harmony with the facts—first, the shortness of time after the flood; and, second, the ability of Abraham, with 318 men, to even make an attack and disconcert and confuse the army and deliver Lot and the Sodomites and all their goods. These facts all agree that the cities, the armies, the kingly powers of that day, were very meager in comparison to what we have in mind when we use similar terms in our day. In all probability the armies of the four kings combined did not exceed a thousand men, and the entire population of Sodom probably much less. The building of a city in those times would correspond more nearly to the building of a fort in our day. Thus, for instance, we read that Cain went to the land of Nod and built him a city—a house or villa for himself and his family. R3944 


15. And he divided himself against them by night, he and his servants, and smote them, and pursued them unto Hobah, which is on the left hand of Damascus.



From Strong's 2327, chobah, 2325, chub, to be guilty.

North of Damascus, the place Abraham where defeated Chedorlaomer and his alies and rescued Lot.



From Strong's 1834, dammeseq, unknown; Abraim Publications, from (1) דמם (damam), to be primitive, and (2) a mystery element משק (mesheq), liberally paraphrased as Salvation, or from (1) דר (dor), period or cycle, and (2) the mystery element משק (mesheq), Salvation or from rom (1) either of the above and (2) the verb משך (mashak), to draw or draw outor from the verb δαμαζω (damazo), to domesticate.

One of the most ancient of cities,  the capital of Syria (Isaiah 7:817:3). It lay about 133 miles to the north of Jerusalem. Today it is called Esh-Sham; the East. It was conquered by the Egyptian king Thothmes III. The city is first mentioned in the Bible in connection with Abraham's rescue of Lot. Abraham's steward was from this city. (15:2). It is mentioned in the time of David. ( 2 Samuel 8:51 Chronicles 18:5.) It is mentioned again during the reign of Solomon. (1 Kings 11:23) The Syrians were conquered by the Assyrians, the city was destroyed, and the inhabitants carried captive into Assyria (2 Kings 16:7-9; Isaiah 7:8). Syria was a part of Assyria until the capture of Nineveh by the Medes. Under the Romans, Damascus was the seat of the Syrian province. In 37 A.D. Aretas, the king of Arabia, became master of Damascus, having driven back Herod Antipas. Here Saul was converted to Christianity. (Acts 9:1-25). Christianity spread from Damascus to the surrounding regions.(Acts 9:20) Damascus was conquered by the Muslims in 634 A.D. . In A.D. 1516 it fell under the dominion of the Turks.

Damascus; Damascus map; Ancient Damascus Engraving; Damascus ruins



16. And he brought back all the goods, and also brought back his brother Lot, and his goods, and the women also, and the people.



17. And the king of Sodom went out to meet him, after his return from the slaughter of Chedorlaomer and the kings that were with him, at the vale of Shaveh (the same is the King's Vale).




18. And Melchizedek king of Salem brought forth bread and wine: and he was priest of God Most High.


From Strong's 4442, malki-tsedeq, my king is right, from 4428, melek, king, from 6664, tsedeq, righteousness.

The king of Salem and priest of the most high God. He met Abram in the valley of Shaveh, bringing bread and wine, blessed him, and received tithes from him. (Genesis 14:18-20) Melchizedek is mentioned in Psalms 110:4 where Messiah is described as a priest forever, after the order of Melchizedek. (Hebrews 5:1Hebrews 6:1Hebrews 7:1)

Melchisedek, [Page Q485] as a type, represents our Lord as a glorified priest, a reigning priest. In other words, here are two types; one presenting the earthly ministry of Christ, the sufferings of Christ, the sacrificing of Christ, and presenting the merit of his sacrifice to the Father, all typified in Aaron; and then the Church typified by the sons of Aaron, the under-priests, and their share in the sacrificing, filling up that which is behind of the afflictions of Christ; whereas the Meichisedek priesthood represents Christ and the Church glorified in the kingdom of glory, able and willing to bless all the world and to establish the kingdom of peace, the millennial kingdom, in which all mankind will be blessed. There is very little told us about Melchisedek. The Apostle tells us that he was without beginning of days and without end of years. We do not understand him to mean that Melchisedek never was born or that he never died, but rather that as a priest he was typical, and that his priesthood did not come to him from his parents, as did the priesthood of Aaron which descended from one son to another, but that his priesthood was an original priesthood; he had no parents in this Melchisedek priesthood, and he had no children in this Melchisedek priesthood; his priesthood was without any beginning of time and without any ending of time; and thus he typified Christ whose priestly office as a priest of the new order of the Millennial kingdom is not a limited one, and does not come to him by heredity, nor pass from him to another. Thus Melchisedek was a type. Q484

Again, the Aaronic Priesthood was a type of the Christian priesthood, during the time Christ and His body suffer and die, down until they shall appear in the glory of the kingdom. Here the Aaronic type ceases, and where it ceases the Melchisedec type begins. The Melchisedec type shows no death, no sacrifice, only the reigning and blessing—king and priest. How beautifully it illustrates what we must shortly be. With Jesus our head, we soon shall be "kings and priests unto God, and reign on the earth." One of the most notable events of that reign will be the blessing of the natural descendants of Abraham, as shown in the type (Gen. 14:18-20): "And Melchisedek, king of Salem (type of Christ—head and body) ...blessed Abraham." Then "the elder (natural Israel) shall serve the younger" (spiritual Israel), and pay them tribute and homage, as Abraham paid tribute and homage to Melchisedec.

"If He were on earth He could not be a priest," says Paul. I am not trying to prove to you that Jesus' claims as a priest are based upon titles of the law. No, we claim that He came of Judah, the kingly tribe. As a priest, He did not attempt to usurp your office. No, He was offered on the great altar—the earth itself, and when He went in with the real blood of sin-offering, He did not attempt to go into the holy places made with hands, but into the real ones, of which yours is only a type or shadow. Soon the sacrifice will all be over. He has left a measure of suffering and death to be filled up by us, His body. Soon all will be over, and we "shall appear with Him" to "bless the people" (as you do in symbol), but it will be with kingly power united to our priestly office. And then, too, when complete, our priesthood shall continue forever. See, God gave you a type of this higher priesthood in Melchisedec, "King of Peace" and "Priest of God," of whom it is testified "he lives." So when our priesthood reaches the plane typified by Melchisedec, we will never die, but abide a "Royal Priesthood" forever. How indispensable are both of these types, the Aaronic, showing how we must die with Him, and the Melchisedec, how we shall live with Him and be glorified together; "no cross, no crown." R86

Melchisedec, Priest and King

Melchisedec was a priest of God, and at the same time King of Salem (peace). Abraham acknowledged him and paid him tithes. God prophetically declared through the Psalmist, that Messiah would be a Priest of the Melchisedec order, forever.—Psalm 110:4.

The Jews overlooked this prophecy and thought that everything of a priestly character in connection with God's Plan would be fulfilled through the Aaronic priesthood, which was merely typical. Their expectancy of the Messianic Kingdom and glory blinded them to His work as a sin-atoning Priest.

They saw not that Messiah is to be one of many members. Jesus is the Head and the Elect Church the Body of the Melchisedec Priest. Christians are deeply interested in the Messianic Reign; also in the fact that to become members of that Royal Priesthood means a participation with Jesus in the sacrifice of earthly life, as St. Paul exhorts, in Romans 12:1.

The declaration that Melchisedec was without father or mother, without beginning of days or end of years, has puzzled Bible students until recently. The interpretation is now quite satisfactory and simple: Melchisedec was without father or mother in the priesthood. He did not inherit this priesthood. He was without beginning of days and years in respect to his office, in that no record was made when his priesthood began, nor any provision made for a successor. In these respects he typified Messiah.—Hebrews 7:1-4. PD25



2 names in the Bible

From Strong's 8004, shalem, peace, from 7999, shalam, amends.

Salem was the name of the city of which Melchizedek was king. Jewish tradition is that Salem is Jerusalem. Psalm 76:2 says "His tent is in Salem, His dwelling place in Zion."

2. A Shechemites city, east of Sychar. (Genesis 33:18)

19. And he blessed him, and said, Blessed be Abram of God Most High, possessor of heaven and earth:




20. and blessed be God Most High, who hath delivered thine enemies into thy hand. And he gave him a tenth of all.




21. And the king of Sodom said unto Abram, Give me the persons, and take the goods to thyself.  
22. And Abram said to the king of Sodom, I have lifted up my hand unto Jehovah, God Most High, possessor of heaven and earth,  
23. that I will not take a thread nor a shoe-latchet nor aught that is thine, lest thou shouldest say, I have made Abram rich:  
24. save only that which the young men have eaten, and the portion of the men that went with me, Aner, Eshcol, and Mamre. Let them take their portion.